PDF/A (LaTeX)

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Generating valid PDF/A documents with LaTeX is quiet a challange and depends heavily on the distribution (TexLive, MikTeX, ...) and the compiler (pdflatex, xelatex, lualatex).

Possiblilty 1: Ghostscript

gswin64c -q -dNOSAFER -dPDFA=3 -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dNOOUTERSAVE -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress `
    -sColorConversionStrategy=RGB `
    -sProcessColorModel=DeviceRGB `
    -sDEVICE=pdfwrite `
    -dPDFACompatibilityPolicy=1 `
    -sOutputFile="thesis-a.pdf" "PDFA_def.ps" "thesis.pdf" "pdfmarks.txt"

The file pdfmarks.txt for the metadata:

[ /Title (Document title)
  /Author (Author name)
  /Subject (Subject description)
  /Keywords (comma, separated, keywords)
  /ModDate (D:20210814112233)
  /CreationDate (D:20210814112233)
  /Creator (application name or creator note)
  /Producer (PDF producer name or note)
  /DOCINFO pdfmark


Possibility 2: pdfx

Possibility 3: hyperref & hyperxmp